Rukn-ud-din Firuz was the ruler of the Slave dynasty who was placed on the throne of Delhi Sultanate by the nobles of the court in deference to the wishes of the Slave Sultan Iltutmish who had nominated his daughter Razia as his successor before his death in April, 1236.
Iltutmish 's eldest son, Nasir-ud-din Mahmud, who was also his favourite child and the ablest among the children, died in April, A.D. 1229. Nasir-ud-din Mahmud was governor of Bengal at that time. Since Rukn-ud-din Firuz, Iltutmish’s eldest surviving son, was incompetent and lazy and indulged in sensual pleasures, the Sultan thought it prudent to nominate Razia as heir-apparent. However, the anointment of a woman was not liked by the nobles and courtiers. So his wish was thrown to the dustbin and Rukn-ud-din Firuz became the next Slave Sultan.
Rukn-ud-din Firuz’s reign did not last long as the kingdom plunged into utter chaos and disorder due to the undue influencne of his mother Shah Turkhan, an inordinately ambitious woman of low origin, who let loose a reign of terror by persecuting her co-wives and their children. The provincial governors of Badaun, Multan, Hansi, Lahore, Oudh and Bengal threw off their allegiance to the Delhi Sultanate.
The nobles of Delhi put Shah Turkhan,in prison and Rukn-ud-din Firuz was killed on the 9th November, A.D. 1236.
Rukn-ud-din Firuz was succeeded by his sister Razia on the Delhi throne.