Chronology of Indian History

Chronology of Indian History

Ancient India


B.C 23100-1750 The Harappa Culture, also known as the Indus Valley Civilisation. Traces of this culture have been discovered from Mohenjodorao and Harappa (now in Pakistan), Lothal (Gujarat), and Kalibangan(Rajasthan). More than 350 sites of the period have been identified (the chronology of the Harappa Culture is based on radio-carbon dating)





2000-1500 Advent of the Aryans in India



1500-900 The Vedic Age – composition of the Hymns of the Rigveda – the period of the Rig, Samveda and Yajurveda.



900-500 Later Vedic period – the period of the Later Vedas – Atharvaveda, and Brahmanas, Arnyakas, Samhitas, early Upanishadas and Sutras.



563-483 Gautama Buddha – born at Lumbini (Nepal), attainment of Enlightenment – Bodh Gaya (Bihar), First sermon – Sarnath , near Varanasi (UP), death – Kusinara (Gorakhpur, UP



540 – 468 Mahavira – born at Kundangrama near Vaisali (Bihar) and passed away at Pavapuri (near Patna, Bihar)



519 Cyrus conquers parts of North-western India



542-490 Bimbisara, king of the Hryanka dynasty of Magadha



490-458 Ajatsatru, son of Bimbisara, king of Magadha



413-362 Sisunaga dynasty of Magadha. Sisunaga was a minister of the Haryankas, Annihilation of the power of the Pradyotas of Avanti



362-334 Mahapadma Nanda of the Nand Dynasty of Magadha



327-325 invasion of the Alexander of Macedonia











Mauryan period (324 or 321



BC. To 183 or 185 B.C.)



324 or 321 to 300 or 289 Chandraguptta Maurya, the founder of the Mauryan dynasty.



315 Megasthenes, the ambassador of Seleucus, visited India and wrote Indika



Bindusara, son of Chadragupta Maurya

Asoka-Conquest of Kalinga 262-62 B.C.

232-185 Successors of Asoka. The last Mauryan king was Brihadratha who was assassinated by Pushyamitra’s Sunga, the General of the Mauryan Army



185-147 Pushyamitra’s Sunga, the founder of Sunga Dynasty



147-71 Later Sungas and end of the Sunga Dynasty (71 B.C.)





Kanvas seize power from the Sungas







The Age of Foreign invasions



c. 190 Greeks invade India and found Greek kingdoms in N. W. India



180-165 Demetrius-Indo-Greek King



155-130 Menander, also known as Milinda



90 Sakas invade India. The first Saka ruler was Maues who was succeeded by Azes. As many as four Saka dynasties were founded in various parts of the country-North West India, Mathura, Western India and Central India. The two greatest Saka rulers were Nahapana (A.D. 119-124) and Rudradaman(A.D. 150)



58-57 The Vikrama Samvat (era) introduced by King Vikramaditya of Ujjain





Around the beginning of Parthians or Pahalvas invade UIndia



the Christian era





A.D. 19-45 Gondophernes, the greatest Indo-Parthian king



45 The Yueh-chis (Kushanas) invade India



78-101 Kanishka, the Greatest Kushana king of India. The Fourth Buddhist Council held in Kashmir, Division of Buddhism into Mahayana and Hinyana



78 Saka Era



130-388 Saka Satraps in Ujjain (central India)







The Gupta Dynasty (A.D. 320-540)





320 -335 Chandragupta I, the founder of the Gupta Dynasty



335-376 Samudragupta



376-415 Chandragupta II Vikramaditya –the Chinese pilgrim Fa-hian visited India



415-454 Kumaragupta I



454 First Huna Invasion



455-467 Skadagupta



495 Second Huna Invasion



467-540 Later Gupts and end of the Gupta Dynasty



606-647 Harsha of Kannauj. Huen-t-sang visited India (630-644)







South India



1st to 3rd century A.D. The Sangam Age



50 B.C.-A.D. 250 Satavahana dynasty in the Deccan



86-114 Gautmiputra Satkarni, the greatest Satavahana king



c.300-888 Pallavas of Kanchi (Kanjeevaram)





C.500-757 First Chalukya dynsty of Vatapi (W. and Central Deccan)



C.630-970 Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi (E.Deccan)



757-973 Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta



c. 850-1267 Cholas of Tanjore (Thanjavur)



985-1014 Rajaraja the Great, Starts a great land survey-A.D.1000



1014-44 Rajendra CHola. Conquers Sri lanka-1008; invades Bengal-1921; expedition to Kadaram (Sumatra and Malya peninsula)-1025





Rajadhiraja I

Rajendra II

Virarajendra

1070-1120 Kulottunga I, Annexes the Andhra country to Chola kingdom -1076



1120-1267 Later Cholas



973-1189 Second Chalukya dynasty of Kalyani











Early Medieval Dynasties of Northern India







Arabs occupy Sindh

c. 730 Yashovarman of Kannauj



C.760-1141 Palas of Bengal and Bihar



C.815-855 Devapala, the greatest Pala king, who maintained close cultural contacts with the far-eastern Islands of Java and Sumatra, and made magnificent grants to the University of Nalanda



c. 800-1036 Gurjar Pratiharas of Kannauj



1080-1194 Gahadvalas of Kannauj. The Gahadvala ruler Jayachandra defeated and slain by Muhammad Ghori in the battle of Chandawar in 1194



c.916 -1203 The Chandellas of Bundelkhand. They were the builders of magnificent temples at Khajuraho



c.950-1195 Kalchuris of Tripuri(Madhya Pradesh)



C. 973-1192 Chahmans of Sakambhari (Ajmer – Rajasthan)



1179-92 Prithviraj III, also known as Rai Pithaura, who defeated Muhamamd Ghori in the first battle of Tarain, but was defeated and killed in the second battle of Tarain in 1192



c.974-1238 Chalukyas of Anhilwad (Gujarat)



974-1233 Parmars of Dhar (Malwa, Madhya Pradesh)



1000-55 Bhoja, the most striking and versatile Parmara ruler. Author of about two dozen books on different subjects. Known as “one of the greatest scholar kings of India.



1118-90 Senas of Bengal



c.630-955 Karkotaka dynasty of Kashmir



c.724-60 Lalitaditya Muktapida, the greatest king of the Karkotaka dynasty, who built the famous Martand (sun ) temple



855-939 Utapala dynasty of Kashmir



939-1339 The Loharas of Kashmir



980-1003 Empress Didda, one of the most interesting figures in the history of Kashmir, and also one of the most well-known women rulers of India



883-1026 The Shahis or Hind Shahiyas of Kabul and Punjab



1030 The great Arab traveller and author of Kitab-ul-Hind, Alberuni in iNdia







Turkish Invasions





Invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni

Ahmad Niyaltgin invades Varanasi

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