Chronology of Indian History

Chronology of Indian History

Ancient India

B.C 23100-1750 The Harappa Culture, also known as the Indus Valley Civilisation. Traces of this culture have been discovered from Mohenjodorao and Harappa (now in Pakistan), Lothal (Gujarat), and Kalibangan(Rajasthan). More than 350 sites of the period have been identified (the chronology of the Harappa Culture is based on radio-carbon dating)

2000-1500 Advent of the Aryans in India

1500-900 The Vedic Age – composition of the Hymns of the Rigveda – the period of the Rig, Samveda and Yajurveda.

900-500 Later Vedic period – the period of the Later Vedas – Atharvaveda, and Brahmanas, Arnyakas, Samhitas, early Upanishadas and Sutras.

563-483 Gautama Buddha – born at Lumbini (Nepal), attainment of Enlightenment – Bodh Gaya (Bihar), First sermon – Sarnath , near Varanasi (UP), death – Kusinara (Gorakhpur, UP

540 – 468 Mahavira – born at Kundangrama near Vaisali (Bihar) and passed away at Pavapuri (near Patna, Bihar)

519 Cyrus conquers parts of North-western India

542-490 Bimbisara, king of the Hryanka dynasty of Magadha

490-458 Ajatsatru, son of Bimbisara, king of Magadha

413-362 Sisunaga dynasty of Magadha. Sisunaga was a minister of the Haryankas, Annihilation of the power of the Pradyotas of Avanti

362-334 Mahapadma Nanda of the Nand Dynasty of Magadha

327-325 invasion of the Alexander of Macedonia

Mauryan period (324 or 321

BC. To 183 or 185 B.C.)

324 or 321 to 300 or 289 Chandraguptta Maurya, the founder of the Mauryan dynasty.

315 Megasthenes, the ambassador of Seleucus, visited India and wrote Indika

Bindusara, son of Chadragupta Maurya

Asoka-Conquest of Kalinga 262-62 B.C.

232-185 Successors of Asoka. The last Mauryan king was Brihadratha who was assassinated by Pushyamitra’s Sunga, the General of the Mauryan Army

185-147 Pushyamitra’s Sunga, the founder of Sunga Dynasty

147-71 Later Sungas and end of the Sunga Dynasty (71 B.C.)

Kanvas seize power from the Sungas

The Age of Foreign invasions

c. 190 Greeks invade India and found Greek kingdoms in N. W. India

180-165 Demetrius-Indo-Greek King

155-130 Menander, also known as Milinda

90 Sakas invade India. The first Saka ruler was Maues who was succeeded by Azes. As many as four Saka dynasties were founded in various parts of the country-North West India, Mathura, Western India and Central India. The two greatest Saka rulers were Nahapana (A.D. 119-124) and Rudradaman(A.D. 150)

58-57 The Vikrama Samvat (era) introduced by King Vikramaditya of Ujjain

Around the beginning of Parthians or Pahalvas invade UIndia

the Christian era

A.D. 19-45 Gondophernes, the greatest Indo-Parthian king

45 The Yueh-chis (Kushanas) invade India

78-101 Kanishka, the Greatest Kushana king of India. The Fourth Buddhist Council held in Kashmir, Division of Buddhism into Mahayana and Hinyana

78 Saka Era

130-388 Saka Satraps in Ujjain (central India)

The Gupta Dynasty (A.D. 320-540)

320 -335 Chandragupta I, the founder of the Gupta Dynasty

335-376 Samudragupta

376-415 Chandragupta II Vikramaditya –the Chinese pilgrim Fa-hian visited India

415-454 Kumaragupta I

454 First Huna Invasion

455-467 Skadagupta

495 Second Huna Invasion

467-540 Later Gupts and end of the Gupta Dynasty

606-647 Harsha of Kannauj. Huen-t-sang visited India (630-644)

South India

1st to 3rd century A.D. The Sangam Age

50 B.C.-A.D. 250 Satavahana dynasty in the Deccan

86-114 Gautmiputra Satkarni, the greatest Satavahana king

c.300-888 Pallavas of Kanchi (Kanjeevaram)

C.500-757 First Chalukya dynsty of Vatapi (W. and Central Deccan)

C.630-970 Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi (E.Deccan)

757-973 Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta

c. 850-1267 Cholas of Tanjore (Thanjavur)

985-1014 Rajaraja the Great, Starts a great land survey-A.D.1000

1014-44 Rajendra CHola. Conquers Sri lanka-1008; invades Bengal-1921; expedition to Kadaram (Sumatra and Malya peninsula)-1025

Rajadhiraja I

Rajendra II


1070-1120 Kulottunga I, Annexes the Andhra country to Chola kingdom -1076

1120-1267 Later Cholas

973-1189 Second Chalukya dynasty of Kalyani

Early Medieval Dynasties of Northern India

Arabs occupy Sindh

c. 730 Yashovarman of Kannauj

C.760-1141 Palas of Bengal and Bihar

C.815-855 Devapala, the greatest Pala king, who maintained close cultural contacts with the far-eastern Islands of Java and Sumatra, and made magnificent grants to the University of Nalanda

c. 800-1036 Gurjar Pratiharas of Kannauj

1080-1194 Gahadvalas of Kannauj. The Gahadvala ruler Jayachandra defeated and slain by Muhammad Ghori in the battle of Chandawar in 1194

c.916 -1203 The Chandellas of Bundelkhand. They were the builders of magnificent temples at Khajuraho

c.950-1195 Kalchuris of Tripuri(Madhya Pradesh)

C. 973-1192 Chahmans of Sakambhari (Ajmer – Rajasthan)

1179-92 Prithviraj III, also known as Rai Pithaura, who defeated Muhamamd Ghori in the first battle of Tarain, but was defeated and killed in the second battle of Tarain in 1192

c.974-1238 Chalukyas of Anhilwad (Gujarat)

974-1233 Parmars of Dhar (Malwa, Madhya Pradesh)

1000-55 Bhoja, the most striking and versatile Parmara ruler. Author of about two dozen books on different subjects. Known as “one of the greatest scholar kings of India.

1118-90 Senas of Bengal

c.630-955 Karkotaka dynasty of Kashmir

c.724-60 Lalitaditya Muktapida, the greatest king of the Karkotaka dynasty, who built the famous Martand (sun ) temple

855-939 Utapala dynasty of Kashmir

939-1339 The Loharas of Kashmir

980-1003 Empress Didda, one of the most interesting figures in the history of Kashmir, and also one of the most well-known women rulers of India

883-1026 The Shahis or Hind Shahiyas of Kabul and Punjab

1030 The great Arab traveller and author of Kitab-ul-Hind, Alberuni in iNdia

Turkish Invasions

Invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni

Ahmad Niyaltgin invades Varanasi


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